Heart Attack

Heart Attack: How To Influence “Bad” Genetics

Read Time:5 Minute, 46 Second

 What are the main risk factors for developing a heart attack and how can it be influenced?

– The primary criterion is genetic predisposition. Most often, inheritance goes through the male line – great-grandfather-grandfather-father-son and grandson. It would seem that genetics cannot be changed. But by influencing the body from the outside, we can give it a new sign – today it is an actively developing field of knowledge called epigenetics. That is, today’s environmental conditions of the organism affect its descendants in the future. By changing the style of eating, lifestyle, we can change the manifestations of certain genes.

If there is a genetic predisposition, determination of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and there were strokes, heart attacks in the family, then such a boy should be given especially close attention from a very early age. Grow properly – not in physical inactivity, but without heavy physical activity. Boys should not be on a carbohydrate-fat diet. Unfortunately, this is the “diet” they prefer – burgers, chips … It’s better to eat a normal piece of meat with vegetables and herbs. Parents should tell and convey the importance of healthy eating to children, teach them from an early age.

The second risk factor for developing a heart attack is male sex. The third is age after 45 years. Of course, these are also bad habits. Smoking is not so scary by the effects of nicotine, but tars provoke the deposition of cholesterol plaques. Diet and physical inactivity (a sedentary lifestyle) certainly also affect.

Many Ukrainians choose a carbohydrate-fat diet. I often hear: I am an athlete, I spend these calories. I ate a burger, french fries, washed down with Coca-Cola and went to the gym. But on such a diet with a bias in carbohydrates and fats, protein synthesis in the body, which occurs in hepatocytes, is impossible. The protein-synthesizing function of the liver suffers. Weightlifting in this case does not help at all, but only leads to the fact that the heart works with overload.

Another point is that Ukrainians drink very little plain water. Recently, new norms have been adopted: daily you need to drink not 30, but 40 ml of water per kilogram of body weight. These are not sweet and carbonated drinks, but ordinary water. which dilutes the internal environment. Insufficient water regime leads to a decrease in the volume of circulating blood and its thickening, a tendency to thrombosis.

Look into your plate, or How to escape from a heart attack

— Let’s talk about nutrition as disease prevention. What advice would you give to those who want to change their lives “from Monday”?

— Everyone can compare their diet with the “Healthy Eating Plate” developed in 2018 by the Ministry of Health, the Center for Public Health and the Association of Dietitians of Ukraine.

A significant part of this plate is occupied by vegetables and legumes (300 grams of vegetables per day in several doses and 75 grams of legumes). No more than 5 grams of salt and 50 grams of sugar daily. Be sure not to forget about 2.5-3 servings of dairy products. These are two glasses of kefir ( half a pack of cottage cheese, 30-50 grams of pickled cheese (feta, mozzarella, Adyghe).

In the “plate” should be healthy vegetable fats – 70 grams per day. We hardly ever use them. For the heart and blood vessels, it is oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids that are a preventive program for heart attack, coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis as well.

– What about red wine?

— The phenomenon of red wine exists. French scientists from Bordeaux conducted a study on 50,000 French people and proved the cardioprotective effect of red wine. But this effect is dose-dependent: 50 ml of red wine reduced mortality from myocardial infarction by 20%. But we don’t know how to drink like that! They drink quite a lot and do not understand that one of the most high-calorie foods is alcohol.

— What kind of heck -up would you recommend for those who have cases of heart attacks in their family?

– If there is a genetic predisposition, you can take a lipid profile from the age of 12. It happens that intensive growth is accompanied by an increased level of cholesterol in the blood. This is physiology and it’s okay, unless, of course, the indicators go off scale. In addition to the lipidogram – ECG and EchoCG (echocardiography, ultrasound of the heart).

Once a year, I would advise everyone and everyone to undergo a preventive medical examination. Pass a general blood test, biochemistry with a lipid profile, glucose – diabetes mellitus is often masked. Thyroid panel and ultrasound of the thyroid gland (mandatory for Kiev residents). ECG and echocardiography. Examination of the gynecologist and urologist once a year also has not been canceled.

Measure your blood pressure. It happens that at a doctor’s appointment, the patient’s pressure rises – this is the so-called “white coat hypertension”. Therefore, it is better to measure the pressure at home, three times, deriving the arithmetic mean. Watch your pulse, many do not feel arrhythmia.

If there are manifestations or predisposition to coronary heart disease, you can take a blood test for markers of ischemic myocardial damage.

Hypertensive and coronary diseases are getting younger. Often, these pathologies are found in 35-40-year-olds. It is necessary to do a duplex scan of the vessels of the head and neck, to see if there is atherosclerotic damage, expansion of the intima-media.

Heart and COVID-19: let’s be vigilant

– Last summer, the world of sports (and not only) was shocked by the death of basketball star Michael Ojo. The 27-year-old athlete died of a heart attack in training. A few months earlier, the basketball player easily had a coronavirus infection. This news has greatly alarmed both ordinary people and the medical community. Reinsurance, some US universities withdrew the participation of their students in professional competitions. Some patients (even those with mild symptoms of the disease) were found to have heart damage after recovery. COVID-19 can cause thrombosis, increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes. What advice would you give to those who have recovered from Covid?

The coronavirus infection is sometimes compared to the flu. This is a completely different disease. COVID-19 affects the system of coagulation and anticoagulation, the plasma and cellular link of homeostasis. Pneumonia in covid is interstitial. It differs in that microthromboses come to the fore, which then develop into pulmonary fibrosis. Such pneumonia is not treated with antibiotics, but with anticoagulants. It should be treated like interstitial pneumonia, similar to cor pulmonale, heart failure.

If you have been ill with covid, you need to examine the heart and blood vessels, pass a cardiopanel, lipidogram, coagulogram, prothrombin index. In my opinion, long-term use of anticoagulants up to three months should be prescribed to all patients.

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